Strategies: Employment Stability and Economic Opportunity
The following strategy types have an impact on employment stability and economic opportunity. These include (click to expand):
such as sector-based job training and job search assistance. Active labor market policies (ALMP), such as sector-based job training and job search assistance can increase individuals’ employment and earnings potential (Urban Institute). ALMP also include employer-focused policies, such as supported employment and employment incentives, to facilitate more hiring, especially of individuals who need additional training and assistance (Nie & Struby, 2011).
and job opportunities for youth. In the summer of 2012 a group of Chicago youth with a history of behavior issues and missed school participated in a program that provided them with a paid summer job, mentoring, and therapy to enhance social and emotional skills. Seven months later youth who participated in the program saw a 51% decrease in arrests for violent crime, compared to a control group (Heller, 2012). Evidence from evaluation of other youth summer employment programs shows similar positive effects on youth employment readiness (McClanahan et al, 2004).
opportunities. Apprenticeship programs pair learners with employers for 2-4 years of intensive, on-the-job, paid training and classroom instruction. In addition to enhancing specific job skills, participants generally complete the equivalent of at least one year of community college (Lerman, 2014). Evaluations of apprenticeship programs demonstrate significant gains for apprentices and employers alike: apprentices earn higher wages, and employers realize greater innovation, among other benefits.
completing higher education. Employability in North Carolina – and across the nation – increasingly depends on completion of some post-secondary education. For communities of color significant barriers to post-secondary education persist, contributing to enduring unemployment and growing disparities (NC Justice Center). Many programs have shown success or promise at reducing the financial, academic, and procedural obstacles faced by prospective post-secondary students, including: offering more effective college remediation services (Long, 2014), simplifying the financial aid application process (Bettinger et al, 2009), and restructuring financial aid to make it more available to those with greater need (Welbeck et al, 2014).
to encourage work and economic development in low-resource communities. State and federal policy is an effective tool in the effort to encourage employment and spur job creation. Policies that increase individual employment and community economic opportunities include: extending the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) to young workers without children, offering certain welfare-to-work programs, and expanding tax credits to reduce the costs of child care of working parents (Brookings, 2014).
Additional resources: Strengthening the EITC for Childless Workers Would Promote Work and Reduce Poverty (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities)
partnerships to create employment opportunities and facilitate career stability. The Employment Retention and Advancement project initiated in 1998 evaluated a number of programs designed to increase employment stability and opportunities for low-wage workers. The project found some programs with positive results, including programs that used nonprofits or for-profit companies to provide career counseling and earnings supplements as well as connections to employers (U.S. DHHS Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation, 2012)
Additional resources: Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy: Social Programs That Work
|Program||Strength of Evidence||Home||School||Community||In NC?||Cost|
|Career Academies||Evidence-based||X||X||Tell us|
|One Summer Chicago||Evidence-informed||X|
|Youth Opportunities Unlimited||Evidence-informed||X||X|
|Minnesota Family Investment Program||Evidence-informed||X||X|
|Employment Retention and Advancement Project||Evidence-informed||X|
|Wisconsin Regional Training Partnership||Evidence-informed||X|
|Carrera Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program||Evidence-based||X|
|Per Scholas Sectoral Job Training||Evidence-based||X|